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Sohail Tavazoie, MD, PhD
Leon Hess Professor
Head, Elizabeth and Vincent Meyer Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology
Director, Black Family Metastasis Center
Senior Attending Physician
The Rockefeller University
Attending Physician, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
New York, New York
Goal: To develop a blood-based test that can identify breast cancer patients whose disease may spread to other sites in the body (metastasize)
Impact: Drs. Tavazoie and Comen are studying molecules called microRNAs that are released into the blood by cancer cells and could be used to detect and classify breast cancer. Their work could help predict which patients are at risk of metastasis and, also identify those who may respond well to chemotherapy and targeted anti-cancer drugs.
What’s next: The team has discovered that measuring certain microRNAs in blood can identify which patients have metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and which do not, as well as distinguish between those with breast cancer versus benign disease. They will now add more patients to their study in order to confirm these findings.
Tumors release many factors into the blood that could be used to monitor the progression of breast cancer. These include microRNAs that, depending on the genes they act on, can stimulate, or suppress tumor formation and growth. Drs. Tavazoie and Comen are examining specific microRNAs in the blood of breast cancer patients and determining the role they play in the progression of the disease. Their studies will help to develop biomarkers that could aid diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.
Full Research Summary
Research Area: Studying the blood of cancer patients to identify new predictive markers to aid in the clinical management of breast cancer.
Impact: Recent work has revealed that cancer cells have the remarkable capacity to communicate with other cells by releasing structures called exosomes into circulation. These exosomes contain RNAs including a class of small-RNAs called microRNAs, which can modulate the expression of many genes involved in tumor growth. Drs. Tavazoie and Comen are conducting studies to harness the information contained in circulating microRNAs in innovative ways to improve the clinical management of breast cancer.
Current Investigation: Drs. Tavazoie and Comen aim to discover specific microRNAs that are present in the circulation of breast cancer patients, to use these circulating microRNAs as molecular probes to study how they drive breast cancer progression, and to develop them into biomarkers for the detection and classification of breast cancer.
What they’ve learned so far: The team has been successful in demonstrating both the ability to isolate circulating microRNAs from samples of blood and to use the microRNAs to distinguish breast cancer patients with benign breast diseases from patients with localized breast cancer and patients with metastatic breast cancer from those with early-stage disease.
What’s next: In the coming year, Drs. Tavazoie and Comen will recruit an additional 50 women of similar age, ethnicity, and breast cancer subtype to validate the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating microRNAs. They will extend their analysis to other types of small-RNAs such as tRNA fragments. The proposed work has important potential for clinical impact and could provide novel insights into this largely unexplored area of circulating small-RNAs in cancer.
Sohail Tavazoie graduated from the University of California at Berkeley and completed an MD-PhD program at Harvard-MIT, followed by residency training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital at Harvard and medical oncology and postdoctoral fellowship training at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. In 2009, he was recruited to The Rockefeller University as Head of the Laboratory of Systems Cancer Biology. In addition to his laboratory work, Dr. Tavazoie is an attending medical oncologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
His laboratory studies the roles that small-RNAs play in regulating cancer metastasis. Small-RNAs, also called microRNAs, have the ability to block the expression of genes. During his postdoctoral work in Joan Massague’s laboratory at MSKCC, Dr. Tavazoie discovered the first set of non-coding RNAs that act as suppressors of metastasis. These small RNAs were found to be shut off in breast tumors of patients that metastasized. His lab at The Rockefeller University has shown that each of these small-RNAs block the expression of distinct sets of genes that enable breast cancer cells to metastasize. These genes were found to enhance the invasive capacity of breast cancer cells as well as their ability to recruit endothelial cells. His laboratory studies the mechanisms by which these small-RNAs and the genes they regulate control metastasis. By better understanding the molecular pathways that govern metastatic progression, he hopes to enable the development of novel therapeutics that prevent the formation and progression of breast cancer metastasis.