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Thomas W. Kensler, PhD

Full Member, Public Health Sciences Division
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Seattle, Washington

Current Research

Goal: To understand the role of diet during adolescence and early adulthood and how it relates to future breast cancer risk.

Impact: Dr. Kensler has shown that young people who eat a pro-inflammatory diet are at greater risk of developing breast cancer later in life. In contrast, those who ate an anti-inflammatory diet had a lower risk. His BCRF research is focused on identifying new ways to reduce the likelihood of developing the disease through healthy dietary changes made in the earlier stages of life.

What’s next: Dr. Kensler and his colleagues will examine whether inflammation and estrogen-related dietary patterns are associated with menstrual cycle characteristics and breast density—factors known to increase breast cancer risk. 

While adult diet and breast cancer risk has been extensively studied, few clear associations have been identified. However, the effects of lifestyle factors such as diet can begin early in life, so adulthood may not be the important period in a woman’s life for her diet to affect her breast cancer risk. Dr. Kensler is conducting studies that build on our understanding of the association between adolescent diet and breast cancer risk factors—an area of research that has received little attention.

Full Research Summary

Research area: Identifying new strategies to reduce breast cancer risk through healthy dietary changes made during adolescence and young adulthood.

Impact: While many researchers have investigated associations between adult diet and breast cancer risk, significantly less work has been done to determine diet during adolescence and risk factors for breast cancer. By focusing on adolescence—likely a highly susceptible phase for breast cancer carcinogenesis during a woman’s lifetime—Dr. Kensler’s team is identifying dietary interventions that could reduce the risk of breast cancer in adulthood.

Current investigation: Dr. Kensler and his team are conducting studies to identify the biological factors that play a role in the association of an inflammatory diet with increased breast cancer risk. 

What he’s learned so far: Dr. Kensler and his colleagues have found that an unhealthy, inflammation-associated diet during adolescence and early adulthood is associated with a greater risk of breast cancer later in life. Conversely, those who ate a healthy, anti-inflammatory diet had a lower risk. [An inflammatory diet is one high in sugar, refined foods, processed meats, and trans or saturated fats; an anti-inflammatory diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes]. His team has also examined the effect adolescent diet has on other breast cancer risk factors, such as dense breasts and benign breast disease. In women under 40, adolescent diet does not appear to strongly influence breast density or benign breast disease. 

What’s next: Dr. Kensler’s team will continue to examine the affect of diet on brease cancer risk factors such as menstrual cycle characteristics, breast density and benign breast disease.  Specifically, they will utilize DXA scans, a validated low radiation technique, to confirm the influence of diet on breast density. Through these studies, they hope to identify actionable ways to intervene so that younger women can reduce breast cancer risk through dietary choices.


Thomas Kensler is a Full Member in the Public Health Sciences Division at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. He obtained his doctorate at MIT and trained as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Wisconsin and at the National Cancer Institute. After 30 years on the faculty of the School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins, he moved his primary appointment to the University of Pittsburgh in 2010. In 2018, Dr. Kensler moved his primary appointment to Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, and has an Emeritus faculty appointment at Johns Hopkins.  

The goal of his laboratory is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of cancer by chemicals to serve as a basis for the prevention, interruption or reversal of these processes in humans. A major mechanism of protection against environmental carcinogenesis is the induction of enzymes involved in their detoxication and elimination. To translate laboratory findings to humans, his group has conducted a series of "proof-of-principle" randomized clinical trials of broccoli sprout beverages rich in the phytochemical sulforaphane in populations at high risk for exposures to air- and food-borne toxins and carcinogens. They are now developing and validating biomarkers to assess the efficacy of broccoli-based interventions to block the DNA damaging actions of reactive estrogen metabolites in the context of breast cancer prevention. 

Dr. Kensler’s numerous awards include the AACR-American Cancer Society Award for Excellence in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, Society of Toxicology Translational Impact Award and the National Friendship Award, Beijing, China’s highest award for foreign civilians. He has published over 350 research articles. He is a former chair of the NIH Chemo-Dietary Study Section and is on the editorial board of several journals.

Large Researcher Headshot - Kensler Thomas

BCRF Investigator Since


Donor Recognition

The Aveda Award

Area(s) of Focus